An exoplanet (extrasolar planet) is a planet located outside the Solar System. In 2013 the color of an exoplanet was determined for the first time. On 6 October 1995, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz of the University of Geneva announced the first definitive detection of an exoplanet orbiting a main-sequence star, nearby G-type star 51 Pegasi. by R. Paul Butler, Staff Scientist at the Carnegie Institution for Science Prologue I began working on exoplanets in 1986. Shortly afterwards, the first confirmation of detection came in 1992, with the discovery of several terrestrial-mass planets orbiting the pulsar PSR B1257+12. Optical albedo increases with age, because older planets have higher cloud-column depths. Exoplanets are worlds orbiting distant stars. , In 2019 the strength of the surface magnetic fields of 4 hot Jupiters were estimated and ranged between 20 and 120 gauss compared to Jupiter's surface magnetic field of 4.3 gauss. If we discover life beyond Earth, it could change the course of human history. , In 2014, a magnetic field around HD 209458 b was inferred from the way hydrogen was evaporating from the planet. , As more planets are discovered, the field of exoplanetology continues to grow into a deeper study of extrasolar worlds, and will ultimately tackle the prospect of life on planets beyond the Solar System. The official definition of the term planet used by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) only covers the Solar System and thus does not apply to exoplanets. About 1/4 of stars are GK Sun-like stars. PSR 1267+12 B and C:The first pulsar planets.  The rogue planets in the Milky Way possibly number in the billions or more.. They are hidden by the bright glare of the stars they orbit. The newly discovered planets, outside our solar system are known as Exoplanets or extra solar planets. Extrasolar planets were first discovered in 1992. One of the planets is a Sup…  The first confirmation of detection occurred in 1992. , The apparent brightness (apparent magnitude) of a planet depends on how far away the observer is, how reflective the planet is (albedo), and how much light the planet receives from its star, which depends on how far the planet is from the star and how bright the star is. , The least massive planet known is Draugr (also known as PSR B1257+12 A or PSR B1257+12 b), which is about twice the mass of the Moon. Optical albedo decreases with increasing mass, because higher-mass giant planets have higher surface gravities, which produces lower cloud-column depths. There is evidence that extragalactic planets, exoplanets farther away in galaxies beyond the local Milky Way galaxy, may exist. , In December 2013 a candidate exomoon of a rogue planet was announced. 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Five New Planets and Transmission Spectra. In 1952, Russian-born Otto Struve proposed that both Doppler spectroscopy and the transit method could detect massive planets that were close to their parent stars. , There are many methods of detecting exoplanets. Technological advances, most notably in high-resolution spectroscopy, led to the rapid detection of many new exoplanets: astronomers could detect exoplanets indirectly by measuring their gravitational influence on the motion of their host stars. When launched in 2021, the much-delayed Webb telescope will study the history of exoplanets and the origins of the universe's first stars. Known orbital times for exoplanets vary from a few hours (for those closest to their star) to thousands of years.  About 1 in 5 Sun-like stars[a] have an "Earth-sized"[b] planet in the habitable zone. Some exoplanets have been imaged directly by telescopes, but the vast majority have been detected through indirect methods, such as the transit method and the radial-velocity method.  These pulsar planets are thought to have formed from the unusual remnants of the supernova that produced the pulsar, in a second round of planet formation, or else to be the remaining rocky cores of gas giants that somehow survived the supernova and then decayed into their current orbits. When Copernicus discovered that the planets in our solar system orbit the Sun, Western thinking was forever changed. , Planets may form within a few to tens (or more) of millions of years of their star forming.  The first published discovery to receive subsequent confirmation was made in 1988 by the Canadian astronomers Bruce Campbell, G. A. H. Walker, and Stephenson Yang of the University of Victoria and the University of British Columbia. The work of Thomas See later that century appeared to confirm this with a proposed 36 year orbital period of a dark object around one of the known stars. The first possible evidence of an exoplanet was noted in 1917 but was not recognized as such. , Artist's impression of how commonly planets orbit the, Discovered exoplanets each year with discovery methods as of 5 March 2020, For the purpose of this 1 in 5 statistic, "Sun-like" means, For the purpose of this 1 in 5 statistic, Earth-sized means 1–2 Earth radii. On 9 January 1992, radio astronomers Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail announced the discovery of two planets orbiting the pulsar PSR 1257+12.  An exoplanet was defined by the following criteria: This working definition was amended by the IAU's Commission F2: Exoplanets and the Solar System in August 2018. See of the University of Chicago and the United States Naval Observatory stated that the orbital anomalies proved the existence of a dark body in the 70 Ophiuchi system with a 36-year period around one of the stars. Follow-up observations solidified these results, and confirmation of a third planet in 1994 revived the topic in the popular press.   The first confirmation of an exoplanet orbiting a main-sequence star was made in 1995, when a giant planet was found in a four-day orbit around the nearby star 51 Pegasi. In the sixteenth century, the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno, an early supporter of the Copernican theory that Earth and other planets orbit the Sun (heliocentrism), put forward the view that the fixed stars are similar to the Sun and are likewise accompanied by planets. The first exoplanet detected was Gamma Cephei Ab in 1998.  The official working definition of an exoplanet is now as follows: The IAU noted that this definition could be expected to evolve as knowledge improves. The first time we actually detected an exoplanet (orbiting a white dwarf called van Maanen 2 which some scientists believe may have a low-mass planetary companion) may have been as long ago as 1917 as detailed by NASA’s JPL. [c] Assuming there are 200 billion stars in the Milky Way,[d] it can be hypothesized that there are 11 billion potentially habitable Earth-sized planets in the Milky Way, rising to 40 billion if planets orbiting the numerous red dwarfs are included. JOSH WINN: An exoplanet is a planet, except that it goes around a different star, a star other than the sun. However, the mass of the object is not known; it could be a brown dwarf or low-mass star instead of a planet. As of 2016 this limit was increased to 60 Jupiter masses based on a study of mass–density relationships. Humankind has speculated that there were worlds other than our own in space as far back as the time of Ancient Greece.  An exoplanet is a planet located outside of our Solar System. , Although scientists previously announced that the magnetic fields of close-in exoplanets may cause increased stellar flares and starspots on their host stars, in 2019 this claim was demonstrated to be false in the HD 189733 system. KIC 12557548 b is a small rocky planet, very close to its star, that is evaporating and leaving a trailing tail of cloud and dust like a comet. For exoplanets orbiting a single star, the IAU designation is formed by taking the designated or proper name of its parent star, and adding a lower case letter. ", In 1952, more than 40 years before the first hot Jupiter was discovered, Otto Struve wrote that there is no compelling reason why planets could not be much closer to their parent star than is the case in the Solar System, and proposed that Doppler spectroscopy and the transit method could detect super-Jupiters in short orbits. In 2013, estimates of the number of terrestrial planets in the Milky Way ranged from at least 17 billion to at least 144 billion. However, if there is less water than this limit, then the deep water cycle will move enough water between the oceans and mantle to allow continents to exist. The work of Thomas See later that century appeared to confirm this with a proposed 36 year orbital period of a dark object around one of the known stars. TESS IN COLOR , The discovery of exoplanets has intensified interest in the search for extraterrestrial life. At the time there were no known planets beyond the solar system. First exoplanets discovered Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail announce the discovery of two rocky planets orbiting PSR B1 257+12, a pulsar in the constellation Virgo. The failure to detect "star-planet interactions" in the well-studied HD 189733 system calls other related claims of the effect into question. Wolf 503b is the only exoplanet that large that can be found near the so-called Fulton gap. But eventually more planets of other sorts were found, and it is now clear that hot Jupiters make up the minority of exoplanets. 7 years ago, the 17 year old me had chosen to explore the field of Exoplanets for my final year of my high school called ‘Travail de Maturité’.  However, Forest Ray Moulton published a paper proving that a three-body system with those orbital parameters would be highly unstable. Kepler-51b is quite young at a few hundred million years old.  This discovery was confirmed, and is generally considered to be the first definitive detection of exoplanets. The astronomer Walter Sydney Adams, who later became director of the Mount Wilson Observatory, produced a spectrum of the star using Mount Wilson's 60-inch telescope. Learn more about extrasolar planets in this article. , The star 1SWASP J140747.93-394542.6 is orbited by an object that is circled by a ring system much larger than Saturn's rings.  On 3 October 2018, evidence suggesting a large exomoon orbiting Kepler-1625b was reported. Lowering the temperature increases optical albedo even without clouds. Using Earth's history to inform the search for life on exoplanets UC Riverside-led team looks back to find life beyond.  People have believed that some of these solar systems and planets may harbor life.  Astronomers now generally regard all the early reports of detection as erroneous. , For gas giants, geometric albedo generally decreases with increasing metallicity or atmospheric temperature unless there are clouds to modify this effect. So, a planet with a low albedo that is close to its star can appear brighter than a planet with high albedo that is far from the star. The first scientific detection occurred many years later in 1988, and yet it wasn’t confirmed as an exoplanet until 2012. He interpreted the spectrum to be of an F-type main-sequence star, but it is now thought that such a spectrum could be caused by the residue of a nearby exoplanet that had been pulverized into dust by the gravity of the star, the resulting dust then falling onto the star. The closest thing we have to an official catalog of exoplanets has some 700 or 800 entries at the moment.   This discovery, made at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, ushered in the modern era of exoplanetary discovery, and was recognized by a share of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics.  The IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets issued a position statement containing a working definition of "planet" in 2001 and which was modified in 2003. , If super-Earths have more than 80 times as much water as Earth then they become ocean planets with all land completely submerged. Exoplanets: A Brief History The era of exoplanet discovery began in October of 1995 with the discovery of a Jupiter-mass planet orbiting the nearby star 51 Pegasi. "  The nearest exoplanets are located 4.2 light-years (1.3 parsecs) from Earth and orbit Proxima Centauri, the closest star to the Sun. If several planets in the same system are discovered at the same time, the closest one to the star gets the next letter, followed by the other planets in order of orbital size. The study of exoplanets is crucial, especially in finding planets similar to Earth that might host life. , The darkest known planet in terms of geometric albedo is TrES-2b, a hot Jupiter that reflects less than 1% of the light from its star, making it less reflective than coal or black acrylic paint. , In June 2015, scientists reported that the atmosphere of GJ 436 b was evaporating, resulting in a giant cloud around the planet and, due to radiation from the host star, a long trailing tail 14 million km (9 million mi) long. The Fulton gap, first noticed in 2017, is the observation that it is unusual to find planets within a certain mass range. , Also, the 13-Jupiter-mass cutoff does not have precise physical significance. This Jupiter-sized planet, dubbed 51 Pegasi b, was very close to its host star, even closer than Mercury is to our Sun. Some planets orbit one member of a binary star system, and several circumbinary planets have been discovered which orbit around both members of binary star. , The brightness of optical images of Fomalhaut b could be due to starlight reflecting off a circumplanetary ring system with a radius between 20 and 40 times that of Jupiter's radius, about the size of the orbits of the Galilean moons. Extrasolar planet, any planetary body that is outside the solar system and that usually orbits a star other than the Sun. Initially, most known exoplanets were massive planets that orbited very close to their parent stars. Exoplanet history. It was not confirmed until 2003, when better detection techniques were developed. In 1990, additional observations were published that supported the existence of the planet orbiting Gamma Cephei, but subsequent work in 1992 again raised serious doubts. In that case, the planet’s orbit happens to carry it … Of course, it wasn’t known whether these extrasolar systems would resemble ours or indeed whether we may go even further and detect life (or the signs of life) in these systems. After a brief overview of the observational methods currently applied to exoplanet searches and a summary of the first true exoplanet detections resulting from these various techniques, the more relevant historical background is organized according to the observational techniques that are … More than 4,000 are known, and about 6,000 await further confirmation. All Rights Reserved. There are five more exoplanets in the archive this week. In 1992 astronomers reported the first planet-size masses around a dead star, the pulsar PSR1257+12, which sits 2,000 light-years away. Because they are constantly bombarded by radiation from the dead neutron star that they … ", "Prevalence of Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, "Milky Way may host billions of Earth-size planets", "Discovery of a Substellar Companion to the Nearby Debris Disk Host HR 2562", "More Than a Trillion Planets Could Exist Beyond Our Galaxy – A new study gives the first evidence that exoplanets exist beyond the Milky Way", "Scientists Find Evidence of Thousands of Planets in Distant Galaxy", "As Ranks of Goldilocks Planets Grow, Astronomers Consider What's Next", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, "IAU 2006 General Assembly: Result of the IAU Resolution votes", "Working Group on Extrasolar Planets: Definition of a "Planet, "Official Working Definition of an Exoplanet", "TheSOPHIEsearch for northern extrasolar planets", Evidence of an Upper Bound on the Masses of Planets and its Implications for Giant Planet Formation, http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/aa961c/meta, Exoplanets versus brown dwarfs: the CoRoT view and the future, Exoplanet Criteria for Inclusion in the Archive, "Planetesimals To Brown Dwarfs: What is a Planet? Exoplanets are very hard to see directly with telescopes. The first to be observed was HD 209458 b in 2001.. See", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, "Scientists Uncover Evidence of New Planets Orbiting Star", "NASA's Kepler Mission Announces a Planet Bonanza, 715 New Worlds", "Population of Known Alien Planets Nearly Doubles as NASA Discovers 715 New Worlds", "Kepler telescope bags huge haul of planets", "NASA's Kepler Mission Discovers Bigger, Older Cousin to Earth", "Discovery alert! , Hot Jupiters have been observed to have a larger radius than expected. Hot Jupiters are expected to be quite dark due to sodium and potassium in their atmospheres but it is not known why TrES-2b is so dark—it could be due to an unknown chemical compound. Newton hinted that other stars had planets orbiting them just as our sun. And with continual advancements in exoplanet research, this discovery could happen in your lifetime. , Temperatures of gas giants reduce over time and with distance from their star. Partly because the observations were at the very limits of instrumental capabilities at the time, astronomers remained skeptical for several years about this and other similar observations. Increased cloud-column depth increases the albedo at optical wavelengths, but decreases it at some infrared wavelengths. In 1855 William Stephen Jacob at the East India Company's Madras Observatory reported that orbital anomalies made it "highly probable" that there was a "planetary body" in this system. Exoplanets challenge the notion that we are alone in the universe. Using data from Kepler, a correlation has been found between the metallicity of a star and the probability that the star host planets. Some exoplanets are so far away from the star that it is difficult to tell whether they are gravitationally bound to it. The smaller estimate studied planet candidates gathered by the Kepler space observatory. , In January 2020, scientists announced the discovery of TOI 700 d, the first Earth-sized planet in the habitable zone detected by TESS. This was followed by the confirmation of a different planet, originally detected in 1988.  Kepler-16 contains the first discovered planet that orbits around a binary main-sequence star system. About 1 in 5 Sun-like stars[a] have an "Earth-sized"[b] planet in the habitable zone.. This may help researchers better understand giant gas planets, such as Jupiter, Saturn and related exoplanets, since such planets are thought to contain a lot of liquid metallic hydrogen, which may be responsible for their observed powerful magnetic fields. Almost all of the planets detected so far are within the Milky Way.  An example is Kepler-51b which has only about twice the mass of Earth but is almost the size of Saturn which is a hundred times the mass of Earth. Free-floating objects in young star clusters with masses below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are not "planets", but are "sub-brown dwarfs" (or whatever name is most appropriate).  Before these results, most confirmed planets were gas giants comparable in size to Jupiter or larger because they are more easily detected, but the Kepler planets are mostly between the size of Neptune and the size of Earth. (Click for details) Learn more! , Exoplanets magnetic fields may be detectable by their auroral radio emissions with sensitive enough radio telescopes such as LOFAR. In the eighteenth century, the same possibility was mentioned by Isaac Newton in the "General Scholium" that concludes his Principia. For centuries scientists, philosophers, and science fiction writers suspected that extrasolar planets existed, but there was no way of knowing whether they existed, how common they were, or how similar they might be to the planets of the Solar System. In it are an infinity of worlds of the same kind as our own. The IAU's working definition is not always used. This view was also supported by Isaac Newton who wrote "... and if the fixed stars are the centres of similar systems, they will all be constructed according to a similar design and subject to the dominion of One.". These were found in 1992, orbiting the rapidly spinning remains of a massive star that exploded as a supernova. Transit photometry and Doppler spectroscopy have found the most, but these methods suffer from a clear observational bias favoring the detection of planets near the star; thus, 85% of the exoplanets detected are inside the tidal locking zone. At even lower temperatures ammonia clouds form, resulting in the highest albedos at most optical and near-infrared wavelengths. Objects with true masses below the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium (currently calculated to be 13 Jupiter masses for objects of solar metallicity) that orbit stars, brown dwarfs or stellar remnants and that have a mass ratio with the central object below the.  Available observations range from young proto-planetary disks where planets are still forming to planetary systems of over 10 Gyr old. For the purpose of this 1 in 5 statistic, "habitable zone" means the region with 0.25 to 4 times Earth's stellar flux (corresponding to 0.5–2 AU for the Sun). Spitzer marked a new age in planetary science by being the first telescope to directly detect light of planets outside of our Solar System, essentially allowing "exoplanets" planets to be directly studied and compared. Deuterium fusion can occur in some objects with a mass below that cutoff. The history of our knowledge of exoplanets, the various types of exoplanets, how astronomers find them, and more, here. However, the first scientific detection of an exoplanet began in 1988. Brief History of Detecting Exoplanets .  The amount of deuterium fused depends to some extent on the composition of the object. , The rings of the Solar System's gas giants are aligned with their planet's equator.  For example, molecular oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere of Earth is a result of photosynthesis by living plants and many kinds of microorganisms, so it can be used as an indication of life on exoplanets, although small amounts of oxygen could also be produced by non-biological means. In the sixteenth century the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno (Figure 1), suggested that the distant stars were similar to our Sun and therefore may harbour planets of their own. Based on data from the NASA Exoplanet Archive: https://exoplanetarchive.ipac.caltech.edu/.  Furthermore, a potentially habitable planet must orbit a stable star at a distance within which planetary-mass objects with sufficient atmospheric pressure can support liquid water at their surfaces. , As of January 2020, NASA's Kepler and TESS missions had identified 4374 planetary candidates yet to be confirmed, several of them being nearly Earth-sized and located in the habitable zone, some around Sun-like stars. An exoplanet meeting could have been held in a phone booth, of which there were still many. The number of stars in the galaxy is not accurately known, but assuming 200 billion stars in total, the, Video (1:00): Kepler Orrey V (30 October 2018), electric current through the planet that heats, The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia — Catalog Listing, "Overlooked Treasure: The First Evidence of Exoplanets", "Interactive Extra-solar Planets Catalog", "Astronomers answer key question: How common are habitable planets? The best-fit albedo measurements of HD 189733b suggest that it is deep dark blue. For hundreds of years, humans have wondered if there were planets around other stars, but it has really only been in the last few decades that we have possessed the tools to go about detecting them. , About 97% of all the confirmed exoplanets have been discovered by indirect techniques of detection, mainly by radial velocity measurements and transit monitoring techniques.  HD 209458 b (nickname "Osiris") The first planet to be seen in transit (crossing its star) and the first …  This exoplanet, Wolf 503b, is twice the size of Earth and was discovered orbiting a type of star known as an "Orange Dwarf". The most massive planet listed on the NASA Exoplanet Archive is HR 2562 b, about 30 times the mass of Jupiter, although according to some definitions of a planet (based on the nuclear fusion of deuterium), it is too massive to be a planet and may be a brown dwarf instead. Wolf 503b completes one orbit in as few as six days because it is very close to the star. It’s pretty rare for astronomers to see an exoplanet through their telescopes the way you might see Saturn through a telescope from Earth. The first exoplanet for which the mass was measured without ambiguity is named HD 209458b. No planet discovery has yet come from that evidence. Astronomers were surprised by these "hot Jupiters", because theories of planetary formation had indicated that giant planets should only form at large distances from stars.  Although they were cautious about claiming a planetary detection, their radial-velocity observations suggested that a planet orbits the star Gamma Cephei. Posts about history of exoplanets written by waspplanets. There is special interest in planets that orbit in a star's habitable zone, where it is possible for liquid water, a prerequisite for life on Earth, to exist on the surface. One alternate suggestion is that planets should be distinguished from brown dwarfs on the basis of formation. , On 26 February 2014, NASA announced the discovery of 715 newly verified exoplanets around 305 stars by the Kepler Space Telescope. However, for exoplanets that orbit close to their star, tidal forces from the star would lead to the outermost rings of a planet being aligned with the planet's orbital plane around the star. Download Citation | The History of Exoplanet Detection | Abstract I summarize the early developments of the more quantitative aspects of exoplanet detection.
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